The overall order of the reaction is found by **adding up the individual orders**. For example, if the reaction is first order with respect to both A and B (a = 1 and b = 1), the overall order is 2. We call this an overall second order reaction.

A first-order reaction can be defined as **a chemical reaction in which the reaction rate is linearly dependent on the concentration of only one reactant**. In other words, a first-order reaction is a chemical reaction in which the rate varies based on the changes in the concentration of only one of the reactants.

The transfer function of an LTI system is given by the **Laplace transform** of the impulse response of the system and it gives valuable information of the system's behavior and can greatly simplify the computation of the output response.

The overall order of the reaction is found by **adding up the individual orders**. For example, if the reaction is first order with respect to both A and B (a = 1 and b = 1), the overall order is 2. We call this an overall second order reaction.

Determine the reaction order and the rate constant. **If a plot of reactant concentration versus time is not linear, but a plot of 1/reaction concentration versus time is linear**, then the reaction is second order.

To determine a transfer function, you have to **define electrical quantities, usually voltages or currents, that act as in- and output signals**. Because a capacitor has only two terminals, a transfer function can't be defined without using additional components, that can form a circuit.

N/A

- The order of a control system is determined by the highest power of 's' in the denominator of its transfer function.
- The number of open-loop poles occurring at origin determines the type of system.

For a first-order response, the steepest part of the slope is at the beginning, whereas for the second-order response the steepest part of the slope occurs later in the response. First- and second-order systems are not the only two types of system that exist.

The transfer function of the LTI system can be defined as **the ratio of the Laplace transform of the output signal to the Laplace transform of the input signal when the initial conditions are zero**. Or, the transfer function is defined as the ratio of output to input in sdomain when the initial conditions are neglected.

In engineering, a transfer function (also known as system function or network function) of an electronic or control system component is **a mathematical function which theoretically models the device's output for each possible input**.

The poles of a transfer function generally are of three types: **simple, repeated and conjugate poles**. If the values are real and non-repetitive, then such poles are known as simple poles. Example: s = 0, 2, -4 etc. While when the values of the poles are repetitive then such poles are known as repeated poles.

The first-order control system tells us the speed of the response that what duration it reaches the steady-state. If the input is a unit step, **R(s) = 1/s so the output is a step response C(s)**. The general equation of 1st order control system is , i.e is the transfer function.

1. Settling time for the first-order system is defined to be the time at which the output reaches 0.98 (actually 0.98168). From (9), the settling time is **Ts = 4T**, so in terms of normalized time, the settling time is Ts/T = 4. The definition for rise time is shown in the bottom graph.

Order of the system can be defined as the value of the highest exponent that appears in the denominator of the transfer function. ( Total number of poles) Type of the system can be defined as the number of poles located exactly at s=0.

Here, an open loop transfer function, ω2ns(s+2δωn) is connected with a unity negative feedback. Substitute, **G(s)=ω2ns(s+2δωn)** in the above equation. The power of 's' is two in the denominator term. Hence, the above transfer function is of the second order and the system is said to be the second order system.

Poles are the roots of D(s) (the denominator of the transfer function), obtained by **setting D(s) = 0 and solving for s**.

Key points. Humans—and other complex multicellular organisms—have systems of organs that work together, carrying out processes that keep us alive. The body has levels of organization that build on each other. **Cells make up tissues, tissues make up organs, and organs make up organ systems**.

The **nine** major organ systems in the human body are the integumentary system, the musculoskeletal system, the respiratory system, the circulatory system, the digestive system, the excretory system, the nervous system, the endocrine system, and the reproductive system.

The Archimedes screw consists of a screw (a helical surface surrounding a central cylindrical shaft) inside a hollow pipe. The screw is **usually turned by windmill, manual labor, cattle, or by modern means, such as a motor**. As the shaft turns, the bottom end scoops up a volume of water.

NCERT is also recommended by JEE Main toppers and experts for JEE Main preparation. Experts say that **studying NCERT is sufficient to pass JEE Main**. Students choose to prepare for the JEE Main entrance test using the official curriculum and NCERT books, which cover practically all topics.

2 syllables: **"pri" + "PAIRD"****Tips to improve your English pronunciation:**

- Break 'prepared' down into sounds: + - say it out loud and exaggerate the sounds until you can consistently produce them.
- Record yourself saying 'prepared' in full sentences, then watch yourself and listen.

21-Jul-2022

Education